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“Biomarkers” are fundamental to the science and art of medicine. Examples of biomarkers include blood pressure readings; cholesterol measurements; hemoglobin A1C; electrocardiograms. Doctors order tests – or biomarkers – to learn something about their patients that they did not know before ordering the test.

In the field of nephrology, acute and chronic kidney diseases are diagnosed and monitored using blood tests such as creatinine and urine tests such as albumin. These tests are the same tests used fifty years ago by nephrologists. There have been substantial advances in our understanding of the genetics and pathophysiology of kidney diseaseMuch of our research involves efforts to modernize the diagnostic approach to acute and chronic kidney disease using novel biomarkers. 

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